‘爱游戏体育官方’高考英语名词知识点梳理

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无论中考还是高考,名词都是重要的一个知识点,许多小同伴到了高中之后初中的基本名词考点都已经忘记的差不多了,今天橙子妈妈对名词的温习将分成两部门举行回首:part1 初中名词基本知识点总结;part2高考常见名词考点形式剖析。Part 1 初中英语名词详解名词的种类专有名词国名、地名、人名、团体、机构名称普通名词可数名词个体名词、团体名词不行数名词抽象名词、物质名词考点1:可数名词一、基本用法(1)可数名词后可以加­s或­es组成复数形式,用于表达凌驾“一个”的数的观点。...

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本文摘要:无论中考还是高考,名词都是重要的一个知识点,许多小同伴到了高中之后初中的基本名词考点都已经忘记的差不多了,今天橙子妈妈对名词的温习将分成两部门举行回首:part1 初中名词基本知识点总结;part2高考常见名词考点形式剖析。Part 1 初中英语名词详解名词的种类专有名词国名、地名、人名、团体、机构名称普通名词可数名词个体名词、团体名词不行数名词抽象名词、物质名词考点1:可数名词一、基本用法(1)可数名词后可以加­s或­es组成复数形式,用于表达凌驾“一个”的数的观点。

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无论中考还是高考,名词都是重要的一个知识点,许多小同伴到了高中之后初中的基本名词考点都已经忘记的差不多了,今天橙子妈妈对名词的温习将分成两部门举行回首:part1 初中名词基本知识点总结;part2高考常见名词考点形式剖析。Part 1 初中英语名词详解名词的种类专有名词国名、地名、人名、团体、机构名称普通名词可数名词个体名词、团体名词不行数名词抽象名词、物质名词考点1:可数名词一、基本用法(1)可数名词后可以加­s或­es组成复数形式,用于表达凌驾“一个”的数的观点。

(2)只与可数名词复数连用的单词:few(险些没有),afew(一些), many/a great many(许多)(3)既能与可数名词连用也能与不行数名词连用的单词:some,any, a lot of/lots of, plenty of。例如:There is some/a lot of milk in the bottle.There are some/a lot of flowers in the garden.二、名词单复数规则变化规 律例 词①一般在词尾直接加sbook—books chair—chairs②以s, x,o, sh, ch末端的单词通常在词尾加esclass—classes box—boxes brush—brushes watch—watches③以辅音字母+y末端的词,把y改i,再加es 但以元音+y末端的词,则直接在词尾加sfamily—families factory—factories key—keys monkey—monkeys④以o末端的词,有生命的名词加es但无生命名词则直接加s,如:potato—potatoes tomato—tomatoes hero—heroes radio—radios zoo—zoos⑤以f或fe末端的词,改f或fe为v 加esleaf—leaves thief—thieves三、名词复数的不规则变化纪律例词①变中间的元音字母man—men, woman—women,foot—feet, tooth—teeth, child—children, mouse—mice②表现“某国人”的名词单复变化(影象口决:中日稳定英法变,其余s 加后面。)Chinese—Chinese Japanese—JapaneseFrenchman—FrenchmenEnglishman—EnglishmenGerman—Germans American—Americans Indian—Indians Australian—Australians ③单复数一样的名词Chinese and Japanese 吃 sheep , deer and fish 如:a Chinese -- two Chinese , a sheep -- many sheep④ 有的名词只有复数形式people, police, clothes, trousers , pants , jeans , scissors, shorts⑤ 有的名词即可表整体,也可表成员family, class, team, group ⑥由两个名词组成的名词词组,通常只变后面一个名词为复数;注意:但如果前面名词是man或woman时,则两个名词都要酿成复数an apple tree—two apple trees a girl student—many girl students a man teacher—some men teachers a woman doctor—ten women teachers考点2:不行数名词一、基本用法(1) 不行数名词没有复数形式,不能与a/an或详细数字连用,但特指某物时可以与定冠 词the连用。(2) 要表现一定的数量时,常与a cup of, a bottle of, a piece of 等量词连用,如a cup of tea 一杯茶; two bottles of water两瓶水 注意:区别two boxes of chalk与two boxes of apples。

(3) 只能修饰不行数名词的词有:alittle(一点),little(险些没有),much/agreat deal of(许 多) (4) 常考的不行数名词有: food, drink (饮料),orange(橙汁), milk,rice, bread, meat(肉), chicken(鸡肉), pork(猪肉),beef(牛肉),work, homework,news(新闻) advice(建议),information(信息), weather(天气), Chinese(汉语), knowledge(知识)等考点3:名词所有格在英语中,有生命的名词及表现时间、距离、国家、都会的名词,常在词尾加’s 表现所属关系,叫做名词的所有格。翻译成:“的”。如:Tom’s bike (汤姆的单车)名词的所有格例词、例句①直接在词尾加's.Kate's bag, Children's Day, Women's Day②以s末端的名词所有格,在词尾加 'Teachers' Day, students' books③表现两人配合拥有的人或物,在后一小我私家名后加'sLucy and Lily's mother (配合的妈妈)④表现两人划分拥有的人或物,则两小我私家名后都要加'sTom's and Jim's rooms (各自的房间)⑤ 表某人的家、店肆、住宅、公共修建等地名时,所有格后面的名词经常省略:at the doctor's(在医务室);at Tom’s (在汤姆的家)⑥表现无生命名词的所有格,用of 表达the door of the room, the color of the clothes⑦双重所有格:用’s所有格/ 与 of 所有格相联合。

A friend of my father's a book of mine注意:可是有些表现时间、距离、重量、价值、国家和都会等无生命的名词,也可加's组成所有格:如: today's newspaper今天的报纸 eight days'holiday = an 8-day holiday八天的假期 five minutes'walk = a five-minute walk 五分钟的步行旅程【易混词辨析】(1) sound,voice,noise①sound “声音”,指耳朵能听到的种种声音。I heard the sound of the bell.②voice “声音”,主要指人的声音。

She has a beautiful voice.③noise 指“噪音”。词组有:makea noise等。(2) job,work①job “事情”,是可数名词。②work“事情”,可以作名词或动词;作名词表现“事情”时是不行数的;作名词表现“著作”时是可数的。

(3) a number of,the number of ① a number of 表现“大量的;许多”,谓语动词用复数。如:A number of persons are playing chess.② the number of 表现“……的数量”,谓语动词用单数。

如:The number of people in the room is 50.(4) idea,advice① idea 表现“主意”,是可数名词。如:agood idea 一个好主意② advice表现“建议;忠告”,是不行数名词。

如:apiece of advice (5) news, information, message, instruction①news 表现“新闻;消息”,是不行数名词。如:two pieces ofnews②information 表现“信息;资料”,偏重信息的价值,是不行数名词。如: some information③message 表现“消息;音信”,偏重信息的简短,是可数名词。

常用词组:leave a message(留言);give a message to…(捎口信给……)④ instruction 表现“说明;须知;教诲”,是可数名词。如:some instructions(6) house,family, home① house 表现“住宅”,指的是详细的屋子或修建物。

② family 表现“家;家庭”,也可指全体家庭成员。③ home 意为“家”,带有眷恋等情感色彩。(7) 部门单词作可数名词和不行数名词时的寄义差别: room 房间(可数);空间(不行数)。

glass玻璃杯(可数);玻璃(不行数)。orange橙子(可数);橙汁(不行数)。

chicken小鸡(可数);鸡肉(不行数)。time 次数(可数);时间(不行数)。Part2高考常见名词形式高考对名词的考察主要体现在名词的词性转换上,即动词与名词或形容词与名词之间的转换,这一考点主要泛起在语法填空中;而对名词单复数的考察则会泛起在语法填空和漫笔改错中;另外漫笔改错还涉及对不行数名词的考察,现联合高考题,探究解题技巧。技法一 分析句子身分,确定词性转换(1)如果要填的词在句中作主语、宾语或表语要思量名词形式;(2)如果要填的词被形容词、定冠词或形容词性物主代词所修饰要思量名词形式;(3)在平时学习中储蓄构词法知识,并凭据需要酿成名词形式。

[例1] (2017·全国卷Ⅲ)She is determined to carry on with her _________(educate).[分析] education 前面有形容词性物主代词her,此处应该使用动词educate的名词形式education作宾语。[例2] (2016·全国卷Ⅰ)Chengduhas dozens of new millionaires, Asia's biggest building, andfancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top ________(attract).[分析] attraction 第二句句意:可是对于像“我”这样的游客来说,大熊猫是最吸引人的工具。此处作表语且前面有形容词性物主代词its,故应填名词attraction,意为“吸引人之物,诱惑物”。

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[例3] (2016·全国卷Ⅲ) Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C.,influenced the ________ (develop) of chopsticks.[分析] development 凭据空格前面的the和空格后面的of可知,此处需要填名词。构词法增补构词法——名词名词在英语学习中很重要,在词类中占的比例也很大,而且有些词,如动词、形容词等通过形式上的变化会成为名词。下面是动词变名词时主要的几种后缀。(1)后加­(t)ion,表现“行为或状态”。

如action,collection,suggestion,invitation,information,instruction,exhibition,attraction,pollution,solution等。(2)后加­ment,表现“行为或效果”。

如achievement,management,amusement,requirement,statement,development,equipment,disagreement,advertisement,appointment等。(3)后加­er/or,表现“……的人”。如reporter,waiter,interviewer,player,winner,farmer,learner,actor,visitor,collector,director,inventor等。(4)后加­ant,表现“……的人”。

如assistant,attendant,servant,merchant等。(5)后加­ist,表现“……专家,从事……的人”。

如tourist,violinist,pianist,artist,scientist等。(6)后加­ian/­an,表现“有……特征的,专长于……的人”。

如musician,historian,physician等。(7)后加­ice表现“行为,性质,状态”。

如notice,justice,service,choice等。(8)后加­dom,表现“团体,领域,状态”。如freedom,kingdom,wisdom等。此外,我们平时还要多注意总结、归纳和熟记各种词形变化的知识,这样才气在考试中驾轻就熟。

Their unexpected________(arrive)threw our plan into confusion.【剖析】arrival 句意:他们的突然到来打乱了我们的计划。空格前有形容词性物主代词及形容词修饰,所以此处要用名词形式arrival。

类似的变化另有survive—survival。Are you simple enough to believe what that________(lie)tells you?【剖析】liar 句意:你会蠢到相信那骗子说的话吗?分析句子结构可知,这里要求用指人的名词作从句的主语。有两个特殊的名词后面接­ar表现人,划分是liar(骗子)和beggar(乞丐)。

Most female workers in Shanghai suffer from________(anxious)connected to the global financial crisis,according to a recent survey.【剖析】anxiety 句意:凭据最近的一份观察,上海的大部门职业女性患有由全球经济危机引起的焦虑。介词后面应该用名词形式。技法二 “牢记规则”,辨清名词的单复数(1)如果空格处被all,these, several, many, some, a number of, one of, a handful of和数词等修饰时,要思量用名词的复数形式;(2)如果谓语动词是动词原形或are,were, 要思量用名词的复数形式;(3)在平时学习中要储蓄熟记单数变复数的规则,方能解决好此类问题。[例4](2017·全国卷Ⅲ)She has turned down several ________(invitation) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her studies.[分析] invitations invitation是可数名词,前面有several修饰,要用复数形式,故填invitations。

[例5](2016·全国卷Ⅱ)Recent __________(study)show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly.[分析] studies“Recent”是形容词,修饰名词,“Recent _______”在句中作主语,凭据谓语动词show可知,主语需要用复数形式。技法三 分清可数与不行数,破解漫笔改错看到information,advice, homework, progress, knowledge, furniture, luggage等,要想到它们是不行数名词,没有复数形式。[例6] (2017·全国卷Ⅱ) Besides,they often get some useful informations from the Internet.[分析] informations→information information是不行数名词,所以没有复数形式。

[例7] (2016·全国卷Ⅱ)If we goon a trip abroad, we can broaden our view and gain knowledges we cannot get from books.[分析] knowledges→knowledge knowledge意为“知识”,是不行数名词,没有复数形式。Part 3 针对性训练Ⅰ.单句语法填空1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)This trend, which was started by the medical community (医学界)as a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side_______(effect) such as overweight and heart disease — the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.2.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)In1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. Itran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible______(crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and from work.3.(2017·浙江高考)Last October, while tending her garden in Mora, Sweden, Lena Pahlsson pulled out a handful of small _________(carrot) and was about to throw them away.4.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)The nursery team switches him every few ______ (day) with his sister so that while one is being bottle­fed, the other is with mum — she never suspects.5.(2016·四川高考)Any smell might attract natural _________(enemy) that would try to eat the little panda.6.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ)I'd skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that/which are pictured by artists in so many Chinese________(painting).7.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ)While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the________(change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river.Ⅱ.单句改错1.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)The teenage year from 13 to 19 were the most difficult time for me.2.(2016·四川高考)Mom has a full­ time job, but she has to do most of the houseworks.3.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ)The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier.4.(2015·四川高考)As I told you last time, I made three new friend here. 5.(2015·浙江高考)My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made of glass.6.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ)Since then — for all these year — we have been allowing tomatoes to self­seed where they please.7.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ)For example, we can do reading for one and a half hour and play sports for one hour every day.8.(2014·辽宁高考)We've called several time about Cleo's early morning barking.9.(2014·四川高考)If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait for your teacher to lead you outside. Stay close to your teacher and classmate.谜底剖析:Ⅰ.单句语法填空1.剖析:effects 此处凭据空格前面的some以及空格后面枚举的两个例子“overweight and heart disease”可知,应用effect的复数形式。2.剖析:crowds 凭据空格前面的形容词terrible可知此处填名词,crowd表现“人群”,是可数名词,前面没有不定冠词a,所以用名词的复数形式。

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3.剖析:carrots 凭据空格前面的“a handful of”可知,此处要用名词的复数形式。4.剖析:daysevery few days表现“每隔几天”,此处应该使用名词的复数形式days。

5.剖析:enemies 句意:任何气味都可能引来天敌——它们会试图吃掉熊猫宝宝的。凭据句意可知,此处的意思是“天敌”,为可数名词,前无冠词,故应使用复数形式enemies。6.剖析:paintingspainting意为“图片,图画”,是可数名词,由于前有“so many”修饰,故使用其复数形式。

7.剖析:changes 空格前面是定冠词the,因今后面要用名词,本句中谓语部门为系动词are,说明主语应该是一个复数形式的名词,所以使用changes。Ⅱ.单句改错1.剖析:year→years 此处指13~19 岁的年事,故用名词复数形式。2.剖析:houseworks→houseworkhousework是不行数名词,没有复数形式。

3.剖析:airs→air 由后面的定语从句“we breathe in”可知,此处先行词的意思是“空气”,air意为“空气”时为不行数名词。故airs改为air。4.剖析:friend→friends 名词friend为可数名词,其前有three修饰,需要用复数形式,故把friend改成friends。

5.剖析:side→sides 前面有three修饰,故side要用复数形式sides。6.剖析:year→years 前面有these修饰,故应用复数形式years。7.剖析:第一个hour→hours 此处指一个半小时,所以用hour的复数形式。

8.剖析:time→times 凭据前面表现数量的词several可知,此处time意为“次数”,应用复数形式。9.剖析:classmate→classmates 凭据语境可知,此处表现和你的老师和同学们待在一起。


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